Unfortunately, if you follow the official GitLab instructions how to enable Let’s Encrypt support, you may encounter the following error when rebuilding GitLab:
There was an error running gitlab-ctl reconfigure:
letsencrypt_certificate[yourhost.yourdomain.com] (letsencrypt::http_authorization line 3) had an error: RuntimeError: acme_certificate[staging] (/opt/gitlab/embedded/cookbooks/cache/cookbooks/letsencrypt/resources/certificate.rb line 20) had an error: RuntimeError: [yourhost.yourdomain.com] Validation failed for domain yourhost.yourdomain.com
Running handlers complete
Chef Client failed. 11 resources updated in 11 seconds
Let’s Encrypt is enabled, but external_url is using http
The last line is rather misleading, as the domain validation can apparently also fail if one sets external_url = “https://yourhost.yourdomain.com”
As a workaround, add the following two additional lines to /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb (hat tip to Kai Mindermann and Thomas Jost for the hints):
nginx['redirect_http_to_https_port'] = 80 nginx['redirect_http_to_https'] = true
So, all in all, you need to set in /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb:
and add the following lines (adjust the notification e-mail address):
letsencrypt['enable'] = true letsencrypt['contact_emails'] = ['email@example.com'] # optional nginx['redirect_http_to_https_port'] = 80 nginx['redirect_http_to_https'] = true
Make sure that your firewall doesn’t block access to ports 22 (SSH), 80 (HTTP), 443 (HTTPS).
After that, reconfigure GitLab (in a shell):
# gitlab-ctl reconfigure
That’s it! You can now register/login at https://yourhost.yourdomain.com.
This blog has just been migrated to a newer and (much) faster host node running Proxmox 5 with ZFS.
Therefore, I was looking for the best method to migrate a WordPress blog to another server (and/or database and/or directory and/or URL).
Do you remember the times when migrating a WordPress blog was rather tedious, involving many manual steps, despite (other) handy tools like WP-CLI? Apparently, this is no longer needed, as all you need is the following plugin:
This plugin’s export and import functionality takes care of all the required configuration and path adjustments, allowing you to easily migrate a blog with up to 512 MB data. The steps are thus:
- Install the All-in-One WP Migration plugin on your current WordPress site
- Use the plugin to export all your data, plugins, themes, configuration etc., e.g. as a downloadable file.
Note: In particularly tricky cases you can also manually replace certain strings in the db or exclude specific data and files.
- Setup a new vanilla WordPress installation at another location (server, directory). You’ll need a database and the WP installation files for this.
- Install the All-in-One WP Migration plugin on your new WordPress site
- Use the plugin on your new site to import the previously exported data from your old site
It’s hard to believe, but that’s really it!
When upgrading Ubuntu 14.04 LTS to 16.04 LTS the usual way, ‘do-release-upgrade’ will by default remove 3rd party packages. For a Zimbra/ZCS server this means that Zimbra/ZCS packages would be automatically removed when upgrading to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.
Luckily, there’s a neat little trick to prevent ‘do-release-upgrade’ from removing Zimbra/ZCS packages during the upgrade. Here’s how to do it:
- Open two screen sessions (or two terminal sessions) on your Zimbra/ZCS server
$ screen -R
- Block at least the SMTP and SMTPS ports (to prevent clients from accessing the server, consider blocking the IMAP and IMAPS ports too, or all ports but SSH and port 1022) for your Zimbra/ZCS server on your firewall (to stop the delivery of messages).
- Backup the server or make a snapshot, just in case anything goes wrong
- Stop Zimbra/ZCS:
$ sudo /etc/init.d/zimbra stop
- Make sure the system is current:
$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
- Start the Ubuntu distro upgrade process:
$ sudo do-release-upgrade
(if you don’t have do-release-upgrade, you have to execute ‘sudo apt-get install update-manager-core’ first)
- When prompted by ‘do-release-upgrade’ that the third party sources have been disabled, re-enable those third party sources. To do this, open ‘/etc/apt/sources.list.d/zimbra.list’ with an editor (e.g. nano, vim) in another terminal/screen session and change its content from:
# deb [arch=amd64] https://repo.zimbra.com/apt/87 xenial zimbra # disabled on upgrade to xenial # deb-src [arch=amd64] https://repo.zimbra.com/apt/87 xenial zimbra # disabled on upgrade to xenial
deb [arch=amd64] https://repo.zimbra.com/apt/87 xenial zimbra deb-src [arch=amd64] https://repo.zimbra.com/apt/87 xenial zimbra
Then return to the first terminal/screen session and let ‘do-release-upgrade’ continue with the upgrade process (i.e. hit ‘enter’).
- When you get informed about the packages that will be removed (BTW, in the detail view you can see that the Zimbra packages will now be upgraded, not removed) and upgraded and asked whether you want to start the upgrade, confirm this.
Note: Don’t worry about minor error messages like:E: changelog for this version is not (yet) available; try https://launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/zimbra-perl-socket/+changelogYou can safely ignore them.
- Agree to all suggestions by ‘do-release-upgrade’ (e.g. the removal of files in /var/log/sysstat/ and whether you allow ssh to be restarted). In my case, it was also fine to go with the maintainer versions of the config files.
- When the upgrade process is finished, let ‘do-release-upgrade’ reboot the system.
After this, Zimbra/ZCS should work nicely again, on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.
Note: It can take Zimbra/ZCS quite some time to properly start all its services (it’s Java, after all). Sometimes, the output of ‘$ sudo /etc/init.d/zimbra status’ and what’s listed in the service monitoring section of the Zimbra/ZCS admin webUI can thus be inconsistent. Sometimes, it’s even necessary to stop and start Zimbra/ZCS a couple of times (with ‘/etc/init.d/zimbra’) after an upgrade until all services run nicely.
Also note that Zimbra’s new dedicated ‘imapd’ service won’t run properly, unless it’s configured manually, as shown in the Zimbra Collaboration Administrator Guide version 8.8.3. If it doesn’t run properly, this service will simply be ignored in a single server setup, your Zimbra/ZCS will thus likely work as usual.
If there are any problems or if you want to be extra cautious, you can also additionally download Zimbra/ZCS 8.8 for 16.04 LTS manually and run its installer again:
$ sudo ./install.sh
If everything is fine, unblock the SMTP and SMTPS (and IMAP and IMAPS) ports again.
If things aren’t fine, simply roll-back from the snapshot or restore the whole server from the backup.
You might then want to try a fresh install according to the official Zimbra/ZCS migration manual: How to move ZCS to another server.
If you see the following error when trying to backup a KVM VM image on Proxmox:
ERROR: Backup of VM 100 failed – disk ‘scsi0’ ‘zfsvols:vm-100-disk-1’ (iothread=on) can’t use backup feature currently. Please set backup=no for this drive at /usr/share/perl5/PVE/VZDump/QemuServer.pm line 77. INFO: Backup job finished with errors TASK ERROR: job errors
edit /etc/pve/qemu-server/100.conf, look for a line similar to
and change it to
Afterwards, it’s possible to backup the VM.
A useful post how to fsck (check and fix) a filesystem in a qcow2 image (as typically used for KVM VMs, e.g. in Proxmox):
On Proxmox or Debian, one does the following:
- Make sure the according VM isn’t running, i.e. the partition not mounted
- Adjust the commands below to match your system, use the correct qcow2 image, use the correct fsck-variant, fsck the correct filesystem, note that -p tries to automatically fix errors!
# modprobe nbd max_part=8 # qemu-nbd --connect=/dev/nbd0 /var/lib/vz/images/100/vm-100-disk-1.qcow2 # fdisk -l /dev/ndb0 /dev/nbd0p1 2048 7813119 3905536 82 Linux swap / Solaris /dev/nbd0p2 * 7813120 119537663 55862272 83 Linux # fsck.ext4 /dev/nbd0p2 # fsck.ext4 -p /dev/nbd0p2 # qemu-nbd --disconnect /dev/nbd0
Like this, one doesn’t need to boot the VM using a boot ISO/CDROM and can fix the filesystem right from the host node.
Overview of recorded presentations:
My list of particularly interesting presentations (mostly for myself – disclaimer: I haven’t watched all of these presentations yet as I didn’t make it to Hamburg this year):
(see also http://blog.invisiblethings.org/2015/10/27/x86_harmful.html && http://blog.invisiblethings.org/2015/12/23/state_harmful.html)
If you see the following error message when executing ‘zpool status’ after “upgrading” Proxmox to the (currently) latest version with ZoL 0.6.4 instead of 0.6.3:
zpool: Symbol `spa_feature_table' has different size in shared object, consider re-linking
“Re-linking” doesn’t have a special meaning in ZFS/ZoL terminology, it rather just describes the usual linking step after compiling some source code.
The most likely cause is that some new, updated and required packages have not been installed (e.g. with ‘uname -a’, you’ll see that the old kernel is still running, even after rebooting). Usually, this happens if one executes “apt-get update && apt-get upgrade” (as usual) rather than “apt-get update && apt-get dist-upgrade“. So, in order to solve this problem, do:
# apt-get update && apt-get dist-upgrade # reboot
In this case, ZoL 0.6.4 also includes a couple of new features which can be enabled for all local ZFS pools by executing:
# zpool upgrade -a This system supports ZFS pool feature flags. Enabled the following features on 'rpool': spacemap_histogram enabled_txg hole_birth extensible_dataset embedded_data bookmarks